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Oncological diseases

Oncological diseases

We look after patients with oncological diseases at the Paediatric Oncological Unit of the Montepríncipe HM University Hospital.

You can make an appointment by calling the number 917089935 or through the CONTACT

According to the National Childhood Tumors Register (RNTI, Spain) and following the same pattern as observed in the countries around us, the most common oncological diseases are leukemia and lymphoma (39%) followed by central nervous system tumors (21%).

We have a high number of children with brain tumors at our Unit (29%), which has lead us to make every effort to improve the comprehensive care of these patients by integrating medical and nursing care with rehabilitation, physical therapy, school and music therapy.

Oncological diseases in children are completely different from those in adults

The ratio of pediatric tumors in Spain is small, between 0,5% and 2% of total cases of cancer (between 1 and 4 out of 200 cases in adults). The impact in Spain is about 1000 new cases per year, similar to that in the countries around us. They are the second cause of death of children, after accidents, in developed countries and the first cause of death in childhood and adolescence after the first year of life.

The 5-year survival rate for children and adolescents with all forms of cancer combined is more than 75%, and diminishing the side-effects in adult life is a main objective. Survival has increased significantly in recent years until an average of 78% and 90% in some tumors.


  • It is a bone marrow disease in which leucocytes (white blood cells) lose their ability to grow and differentiate, producing millions of identical cells that lose their function (leukemic cells or blasts) and fill the bone marrow, preventing it from producing the rest of the cells (erythrocytes, platelets, normal leucocytes). Then they get out and enter the bloodstream and the lymphatic system, invading organs such as the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, brain, testicles, ovaries, kidneys or skin.
  • Depending on the cell where the malignant transformation first occurs, it will become a lymphoblastic leukemia or a myeloblastic leukemia. 


  • Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
  • Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

Central nervous system tumors

  • Ependymomas and choroid plexus tumors.
  • Astrocytoma.
  • Embryonal tumors: medulloblastoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), medulloepithelioma, atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT).
  • Oligodendroglioma, other gliomas.
  • Pineal tumors.
  • Meningioma.

Musculoskeletal tumors

  • Osteosarcoma.
  • Ewing’s sarcoma.
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • Aggressive fibromatosis.
  • Other non-rhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcomas (NRSTS).

Germ cell tumors

Langerhans cell histiocytosis

  • Langerhans cell histiocytosis.
  • Non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis (juvenile xanthogranuloma, XJG).

Liver tumors

  • Hepatoblastoma, hepatocarcinoma.

Sympathetic nervous system tumors

  • Ganglioneuroma, neuroblastoma.